Unit 5-知识点一:听见和倾听,培养倾听技能


1. Hearing and Listening (听见和倾听)

    Audio media means recording and transmitting the human voice and other sounds for instructional purpose.

1.1 Definition

    Hearing and listening are not the same thing,although they are,of course,interrelated.At the risk of oversimpication,we might say that hearing is a physiological process,whereas listening is a psychological process. 听见是一个生理过程,而倾听是一个心理过程。

(1) Hearing

    Hearing is a process in which sound waves entering the outer ear are transmitted to the eardrum, converted into mechanical vibrations in the middle ear, and changed in the inner ear into electrical impulses that travel to the brain.

(2) Listening

    Listening begins with someone’s awareness of and attention to sounds or speech patterns (receiving), proceeds through identification and recognition of specific auditory signals, and ends in comprehension (understanding).

    Hearing and listening are also communication and learning process. As with visual communication and learning, a message is encoded by a sender and decoded by a receiver. The quality of the encoded message is affected by the ability of the sender to express the message clearly and logically. The understandability of the decoded message is affected by the ability of the receiver to comprehend the message. 听见和倾听也是一个交流和学习的过程。

(3) The efficiency of communication is also affected as the message passes from sender to receiver. Breakdowns in audio communications can occur at any point in the process:encoding,hearing,listening,or decoding.


图5.3   在听到—倾听过程中,每一步的阻碍就像过滤器一样, 将接收到的意思减小到原本想要表达的意思

(4)Transmission and reception might be inhibited by a number of obstacles

① The volume of the sound might be too low or too high. 音量可能会太高会太低,太低可能会无法理解声音的含义;而太高又会成为噪音。

② A sound that is sustained monotonously, such as the droning voice of a teacher, may trigger auditory fatigue. 持续单调的声音可能会引起听觉疲惫。

③ An individual’s ability to hear may be physically impaired. 一个人的听力可能会因为生理上的原因而削弱,如感冒等。

2. Developing Listening Skills( 培养倾听技能)


图5.4   倾听技能是口头交流的一个重要的组成部分

    Most school systems regularly use speech and hearing therapists to administer audiometric hearing tests to provide the data you need.

  • Guide listening. 为了引导学生倾听,教师要预先为学生设定一些目标或者问题。开始时是很短的文章和 1 、 2 个目标。然后,逐渐增加文章的长度,目标以及问题的数量和复杂性也随之增加;
  • Giver directions. 教师可以使用录像带,对学生进行个别或小组指导,然后对他们的倾听能力进行评估。使用录音带给与指导时,教师发口令,要遵循“只说一次”的原则,这样学生会重视你的时间和他们的时间,强化他们认真倾听的动机;
  • Ask students to listen for main ideas, details, or inferences. 要求学生倾听要点、细节或者根据所听内容进行推论;
  • Use context in listening. 在倾听中使用上下文信息,(有点像完形填空);
  • Analyze the structure of a presentation. 分析报告的结构:要求学生概述(分析和组织)一个口头报告,以此判定他们辨别要点和识别子问题的能力。
  • Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant. 区分有关信息和无关信息。
Last modified: Friday, 16 March 2018, 10:30 PM