Unit 1-知识点三:方法

5 . Methods (方法)

    Methods are the procedures of instruction selected to help learners achieve the objectives or to internalize the content or message. We have divided the various methods into two categories: students control and direct & teachers assume the major role.

5.1 Student-Directed Methods

(1)Discussion: As a methods,discussion involves the exchange of ideas and opinions among students or among students and teacher.It can be used at any stage of instruction and learning,and in small or large groups.


(2)Cooperative Learning: A growing body of research supports the claim that students learn from each other when they work on projects as a team(Slavin,1989-1990;Harris,1998).


(3)Gaming: Gaming provides a playful environment in which learners follow prescribed rules as they strive to attain a challenging goal.It is a highly motivating technique,especially for tedious and repetitive content.


(4)Simulation: Simulation involves learners confronting a scaled-down version of a real-life situation,It allows realistic practice without the expense or risks otherwise involved.


(5)Discovery: The discovery method uses an inductive,or inquiry,approach to learning;it presents problems to be solved through trial and error.

(6)Problem solving: Problem solving involves placing students in the active role of being conpronted with a novel problem situated in the real world.

5.2 Teacher-directed methods

(1)Presentation:In the presentation method, a source tells, dramatizes,or otherwise disseminates information to learners.It is aone-way communication controlled by the source,with no immediate response from or interation with learners.


(2)Demonstration: In this method of instruction,learners view a real or lifelike example of the skill or procedure to be learned.


(3)Drill-and-practice: In drill-and-practice,learners are led through a series of practice exercise designed to increase fluency in a new skill or to refresh an existing one.

(4)Tutorial: a tutor--in the form of a person,computer software,or special printed materials--presents the content,poses a question or problem,requests a learner’s response,analyzes the response,suoolies appropriate feedback,and provides practice until the learner demonstrates a predetermined level of competency.

Last modified: Friday, 16 March 2018, 10:16 PM