Unit 1-知识点二:媒体、技术

2. Media(媒体)

2.1 The definition of media

    •  A media is a means of communication and source of information. Derived from the Latin word meaning “ between ” , the term refers to anything that carries information between a source and a receiver. The purpose of media is to facilitate communication and learning.

    •  Instructional Media: when media provide messages with an instructional purpose, they are considered instructional media.

2.2 Six basic types of media

    •  Text: it’s the most commonly used medium. Text is a alphanumeric characters that may be displayed in any formats—book, chalkboard, computer screen ……

    •  Audio: includes anything you can here—a person’s voice, music, mechanical sound, noise ……

    •  Visuals: includes diagrams on a chalkboard, photographs, graphics in a book, cartoons ……

    •  Motion media: media that show motion, including videotape, animation ……

    •  Manipulative: three dimensional and can be touched and handled by students

    •  People: these may be teachers, students, or subject-matter experts.

text_audio

manipulatives_people

2.3 The concrete-abstract continuum

    Instructional media that incorporate concrete experiences help students integrate prior experience and thus facilitate learning of abstract concepts.

s_Cone_of_Experience

Dale' s cone of experience

3.Technology (技术)

3.1 What is technology?

    从单纯的硬件到解决问题的具体方法,都可以称为技术。

    “The systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical tasks.” ( Galbraith , 1967 , p.12 )

When technology refers to processes to enhance learning, we will call them instructional systems.

3.2 Instructional technology

    1994 年,美国教育传播与技术协会( AECT )把教育技术定义为:“教学技术是设计、开发、利用、管理和评估教学过程和教学资源的理论与实践”( Seels&Richry , 1994 , p.9

    当我们提起“教学技术”这个术语的时候,我们指的是计算机、远程学习硬件系统和国际互联网这样的技术“产品”。

4 . The Roles of Technology and Media in Learning

    There are two types instruction in our life, the one is that instruction may be dependent on the presence of a teacher (instructor-directed learning); and the other is that instruction may not require a teacher, this type usually be called as self-instruction.

4.1 The roles of technology and media in instructor-directed learning

    A common use of technology and media in an instructional situation is for supplemental support of the “ live ” instructor in the classroom. And their effectiveness depends on the instructor. 课堂教学中,技术和媒体常见的作用是辅助教师教学。设计适当的教学媒体可以提高和促进学习,支持教师的教学。但是使用的结果主要取决于教师。

    Research has long indicated the importance of the instructor’s role in effective use of instructional media.(Wittich&Fowlkes,1946);

    Later research confirmed and expanded on these original findings. For example, the advance organizers, Dale’s cone of experience, and so on.

4.2 The roles of technology and media in learner-directed learning

    Technology and media can also be used effectively in formal education situations where a teacher is not available or is working with other students. For example, the cooperative learning. But please pay attention that this is not say that instructional technology can or should replace the teacher, but rather that media can help teachers become creative managers of the learning experience instead of merely dispensers of information.

    Media are often “packaged” for the purpose: objectives are listed, guidance in achieving objectives is given, materials are assembled, and self-evaluation guidelines are provided. 在这种情况下,教学媒体通常是一个教学“包”,其中包括:教学目标、学习指导、学习材料和自测指南等内容。

    •  协作学习是一个与自我学习密切相关的概念。当学生通过小组合作,或者与教师合作完成学习任务时,他们承担了更多的学习责任;

    •  类似超媒体这样的新技术鼓励学生依靠自己的认知策略自学;

    •  基于超媒体的协作学习能够增加学生之间的交流,讨论和分享彼此之间的观点;

    •  采用自学材料,使教师有更多的时间判断和纠正学生的错误,为学生提供个别学习指导,增加小组教学和一对一教学的时间。

(1) Portfolio

① Definition: A portfolio is a collection of student work that illustrates growth over a period of time. Portfolios often include some artifacts, for example, written documents, media presentations, audio recordings, video recordings, computer multimedia projects, and so on. 档案袋是学生作品集,描述了学生在一段时间内的成长。档案袋中通常包括学生制作的带插图的书、视频作品和计算机多媒体方案。将档案袋的概念引入到学校教育的核心目标是以多媒体形式为中介,让学生展示自己对一个学科主题的理解程度,以及他们使用媒体展示自己观点的能力。

Portfolio might contain the following artifacts:

    •  Written documents such as poems, stories, or research papers;

    •  Media presentations, such as slide sets or photo essays;

    •  Audio recordings of debates, panel discussions, or oral presentations;

    •  Video recordings of student’s athletic, musical, or dancing skills;

    •  Computer multimedia projects incorporating print, data, graphics, and moving images. 计算机多媒体,包括印刷文字、数据、图形和动态图画等。

③ Portfolio allows students to do the following:

    •  Gather, organize, and share information;

    •  Analyze relationship; 分析主题之间的联系;

    •  Test hypotheses; 检验假定、假设

    •  Communicate the results effectively;

    •  Record a variety of performance; 记录大量的行为表现

    •  Reflect on their learning and activities; 反思学习和活动

    •  Emphasize their goals, outcomes, and priorities; 强调目标、结果和优先权?

    •  Demonstrate their creativity and personality. 展示他们的创造性和个性。

④ How to design a portfolio?

⑤ Portfolio and e-portfolio

    First, creating e-portfolio can expand the size of the audience to include other teachers, principals, parents, and students; second, storage space is anther benefit; Third, navigation.

(2) Thematic Instruction

① Definition: Many teachers are now organizing their instruction around topics or anchors; this is known as thematic instruction. 目前,很多教师围绕一个主题或者“锚”来组织教学,这样的教学成为主题教学。特别是在小学,教师把不同学科的知识和技能组合在一起,设计教学活动;在初中,来自不同学科的教师组成工作小组,一起工作,对相关或重叠的教学内容进行统一设计。

② What is a good thematic?

    A good thematic must capture and hold student’s attention, provide problem-solving experiences, support interdisciplinary 各学科间的 activities, and include a variety of media and technology. You can begin the unit with a “shared experience” by having all students read the same book, view a videotape, participate in a simulation, or hear a guest speaker. Then move to “ shared experience ” through which students cooperate to gather data and information, analyze their findings, draw conclusions, prepare a group report, and share their results in a mediated presentation. 一个好的主题必须紧紧抓住学生的注意力,为他们提供问题求解的经历,支持交叉学科活动,含有多样的媒体和技术。在教学中,教师可以在开始时引导学生通过读书、看录像、参加模拟游戏、参观博物馆或者听报告等方式,培养“共同经验( Shared experience )”,然后过渡到“分享技能( Shared Expertise )”,学生们合作完成收集数据和信息、分析数据、得出结论、准备小组报告,通过演示,与大家分享研究成果。

(3) Distance education

    The distinguishing characteristic of distance education is the separation of the instructional team and students during learning, as a consequence, the course content must be delivered by instructional media.

Last modified: Friday, 16 March 2018, 10:16 PM