Unit 1-知识点一:学习

1 . Learning (学习)

1.1 What is learning?

    Learning is the development of new knowledge, skills, or attitudes as an individual interacts with information and the environment. Learning takes place all the time. We learn things by walking down the street, watching TV, surfing the Net, conversing with others, and just by observing what goes on around us.(we are concerned primarily with the learning that takes place in response to instructional efforts on the part of students and teachers). Learning involves the selection, arrangement, and delivery of information in an appropriate environment and the way learners interact with that information.

1.2 Some Psychological Perspectives on Learning

(1) Behaviorist Perspective on Learning

    The most famous behaviorist is B.F.Skinner; he conducted scientific studies of observable behavior. Behavior patterns of an organism could be shaped by reinforcing, or rewarding, the desired response to the environment. The result of behaviorist perspective is the emergence of programmed instruction, a technique of leading a learner through a series of instructional steps to a desired level of performance.

    How to evaluate the behaviorist perspective? They rely solely on observable behavior, and refuse to speculate on what goes on internally when learning takes place. As a result, behaviorism has limited application in designing instruction for higher-level skills.

(2) Cognitivist Perspective on Learning

    Cognitive psychologists explore the mental processes individuals use in responding to their environment, including how people receive, process, and manipulate information. Cognitivism deals with how people think, solve problems, and make decisions.

    How to evaluate the cognitive perspective? Cognitivist have a broader perception of learning than held by behaviorists: students are less dependent on the guiding hand of the teacher and rely more on their own cognitive strategies in using available learning resources.

(3) Constructivist Perspective on Learning

    Constructivist emphasize that learners create their own interpretations of the world of information. The role of instruction is not to dispense facts but to provide students with ways to assemble knowledge. So, we usually say that learning occurs most effectively when students are engaged in authentic tasks that relate to meaningful contexts-learning by doing.

(4) Social-Psychological Perspectives on Learning

    Social-Psychologists look at the effects of the social organization of the classroom on learning. For example, what is the group structure in classroom? A small group learning, independent study, or the class as a whole?

1.3. Approaches to Learning--Instruction

    Instruction is the arrangement of information and the environment to facilitate learning. This may be done by the learner or instructor.

    •  Behaviorists: (1)specify behavioral objectives, (2)then limit instruction to

whatever is necessary to master those objectives. This approach has been very successful in teaching basic skills and knowledge.

    •  Cognitivist do not limit their definition of learning to observable behavior.They believe that learners learn more than is expressed in immediate behaviors.

    •  Constructivists provide a rich environment and allow learners to create their own


1.4 Finding a Middle Ground

    •  Active participation: Effective learning happens when students are actively engaged in meaningful tasks, interacting with the content;

    •  Practice: New learning requires more than one exposure to take root; practice, especially in varying contexts, improves retention rate and the ability to apply the new knowledge, skill, or attitude;

    •  Individual differences: Learners vary in terms of personality, general aptitude, knowledge of a subject, and many other factors; effective methods allow individuals to progress at different rates, cover different materials, and even participate in different activities;

    •  Feedback: Learners need to know if their thinking is on track;

    •  Realistic contexts: Rote learning leads to “inert knowledge”-we know something but never apply it to real life;

    •  Social interaction : Fellow humans serving as tutors or peer group members can provide a number of pedagogical as well as social supports.

1.5 A Philosophical Perspective on Learning

A: A college lecture with little or not interaction between the professor and the students- low in technology and low in humanism;

B: computer-based lessons—low in humanism and high in technology;

C: Similar to sample B;

 D: A group meets on a regular basis to discuss common reading assignments—low in technology and high in humanism.


Last modified: Tuesday, 6 November 2018, 3:37 PM