Unit 7-知识点一:计算机

 

1.Computers (计算机)

1.1 Roles of computers in learning

    • As an object of instruction 作为教学目标

    • As a tool: writing, calculating, retrieving information 充当教学工具

    • As an instructional device 作为教学设备

    • As a means of teaching logical thinking 培养逻辑思维能力

1As an object of instruction

    Computers have become pervasive in education and training. Most learners have access to and are influenced by computer-based instruction.

    When a learner is studying computer programming, the computer and the associated software (programs and applications) are the objects of instruction.

2As a tool: writing, calculating, retrieving information

                                 7.1.1    7.1.2

                                                           As a writing tool                                                 As a calculating tool

                                                              7.1.3      

As a retrieving information tool

图7.1   计算机在学习中发挥工具的作用

3As an instructional device

    • CBE: Computer-based Education
    • CAI: Computer-assisted Instruction
    • CMI: Computer-managed Instruction

7.2

图7.2   CBE 、 CAI 、 CMI 的关系图

4As a means of teaching logical thinking

    The computer should be an “object to think with,” not a dispenser of information.

    Example :Using LOGO,a procedural language that was designed for learners, students can learn about the complexity of mathematics within their daily lives. Children can build and test theories about mathematics.

1.2 Advantages and Limitations of Computers

(1)  Advantages

    • Learner control. 学习者可以控制学习进度。计算机辅助教学系统允许学生对学习资料呈现顺序有一定的控制权(个别化)。
    • Special control. 满足学生的特殊需要。
    • Record keeping. 保存学生学习记录。
    • Information management. 信息管理。
    • Diverse experiences. 多样化的学习经历。
    • Communication precision. 交流的精确性。计算机要求交流者以有条有理、逻辑清晰的方式,逐字交流。计算机用户学会使用清晰、准确的指令和反馈语言与计算机进行交流。

(2)  Limitations

    • Copyright. 版权:软件非常容易复制,而且很多复制为得到版权人的许可。
    • High expectations. 过高的期望
    • Limited range of objectives. 适用的教学目标有限。计算机教学还不能有效地培养学生的情感、动作技能、人际交往能力。
    • Controlled environment. 受控制的学习环境。计算机是严格按照程序运行的。如果程序设计者没有预见到各种可能性,学生的创造性、反馈意见可能被计算机忽略。
    • Lack of social interaction. 缺乏社会交往。
    • Novelty effect. 新奇效应。随着学生对计算机越来越熟悉,对计算机的学习乐趣也会随之下降。

1.3 Integration the computer into the curriculum 与课程整合

    The ultimate value of technology in education and training depends on how fully computers are integrated into the curriculum. Instructors need a framework for using computer technology that covers a variety of learning styles and accommodates varied teaching methods. Most important, results need to be measurable against a clear set of goals and objectives—the second step in the ASSURE model. In classrooms where computer technology is integrated successfully, students use it with the same ease with which they use it with the same ease with which they use books, maps, pencils, and pens. In technology-rich classrooms students and teachers engage in problem solving, cultivate creativity, collaborate globally, and discover the value of lifelong learning.

    • Concept Processing 概念处理。如学生可以用思维导图这样的工具来表达各个概念之间的关系,从而得到准确的概念。
    • Drill-and-practice 训练和练习。如背单词软件,在学生还没通过这个单词的拼写之前不能进入下一个单词的练习,这样就起到了强化作用。
    • Tutorial 辅导。如打字软件辅导学生练习如何打字。
    • Games 游戏。通过玩游戏来背单词经常用在小学生的英语学习当中。
    • Simulation 模拟。 案例一(添加链接到案例一)《春》教学案例 分析:通过播放轻音乐和朗诵,模拟真实的情境,让学生仿佛置身于春天的美好景色当中。
    • Discovery 发现学习。 案例二《三角形外交和》的教学设计(添加链接到案例二)分析:教师用动画演示探究三角形外角的过程,通过计算机与课程整合,使学生在动画中探索发现“ 三角形的外角等于与它不相邻的两个内角之和”这个结论。
    • Problem Solving 问题解决。在问题求解的过程中,计算机可以呈现问题,处理数据,管理数据库,在适当的时候提供反馈信息等。
    • Information Tools 信息工具。如:字处理软件、概念图软件、数据库管理里软件等,可以使学生处理信息的过程变得简单而有趣。
    • Graphics Tools 图形工具。对于学生来说,画图和创作是非常有趣的学习活动,很多计算机软件,如 KidPix 等,都可以使作图的过程变得令人愉快。

1.4 Integration learning systems 集成学习系统

    The Integration learning systems is a networked set of computer workstations equipped with software that provides a particular set of sequential lessons. Students work through these lessons as prescribed by the built-in management system, which tracks individual student progress. 集成化的学习系统指的是由计算机工作站组成的网络,计算机上安装有相应的软件,可以提供一套教学内容。学生按照系统内部的管理系统的引导来学习这些课程。系统可以跟踪记录每个学习者的进步。

(1)  Advantages

    • Self-pacing 自定学习速度
    • Total package 完整的学习包
    • Validated 产品经过认证

(2)  Limitations

    • Courseware quality 课件质量:课件的质量参差不齐,有一些课件质量低下,仅仅提供一些无趣的练习资料。
    • Evidence of effectiveness 有效性证据:教学效果缺乏客观有效的研究。
    • Loss of flexibility 缺乏灵活性:学生用同样的硬件和软件学习。
    • Reports 报告:学生进度报告有时让人难以理解。
    • Curricular integration 课程整合:只是把知识碎片化,没有形成有机的整体。

3Integration

        集成学习系统主要用于基础数学与语言艺术的教学中。基础较薄弱的学生可以在家通过该系统补习。

        集成化学习系统未来最有前景的应用,可能是把集成化学习系统中的课程作为整个学校教学计划的一部分,对学校内的合作教学、主题单元、学生和家长参与制定教学目标等教学活动提供支持,并且可以按照本地教职人员的设计,制定教学内容。

1.5 Software Selection 软件选择

    There are several factors associated with selecting software: foremost is to examine the software within the context of the learning outcomes; other factors that should be considered content ,formats, ease of operation, design, and completeness of the package; the software you select must be designed to run on your available operating system and must function properly with your specific hardware configuration.

Selection criteria:

    • Accuracy 准确性:考虑软件内容的准确性。
    • Feedback 反馈:可供学生频繁地做出反馈。
    • Learner control 学习者控制:学习者应该能够控制自己的学习进度和方向。
    • Prerequisites 先修要求:与学生经验相关的例子,对学生的学习至关重要。软件应对学习者的知识技能做出明确的要求。
    • Ease of use 使用的简易性:软件要易于使用,操作人性化。
    • Special Features 特色:软件的使用应尽可能透明化以减少学习者的认知负担。

1.6 Computer Hardware 计算机硬件

(1)Basic Components(基本原件)

    Regardless of the size of the computer or complexity of the system,computers have a number of standard components. The physical equipment that makes up the computer is referred to as the hardware. A computer’s specific combination of hardware components is referred to as its configuration.The basic hardware components are diagrammed in Figure7.3

7.3

图7.3   计算机基本原件

    • Input Device 输入设备:把外界输入信息传送到计算机中。常用的有键盘、鼠标、跟踪球、操纵杆、图形手写板( Graphics Tablet )和麦克风等。
    • Central Processing 中央处理单元:中央处理单元( CPU )是计算机的核心部件,或者称为计算机的“大脑”, CPU 执行所有的运算,控制真个系统的运行。
    • Memory 内存: CPU 所执行的任何指令和信息都存储在内存中,内存中有控制指令,告诉 CPU 按什么顺序做什么程序指令。
    • Storage 外存储器:在不运行的时候,计算机操作系统,应用程序以及数据文件都存储在内存之外,也就是外存储器中。
    • Output Device 输出设备:输出设备显示程序的运行结果。

1.7 Computer Facilities 计算机设备

(1)The One-Computer Classroom一台计算机的教室

A typical printer for use with a computer. The one-computer classroom, then, can be viewed as a place where you may use the computer in many ways:

    • Large group 大班教学
    • Small group 小组学习
    • Learning center 学习中心
    • Personal secretary 个人秘书

2The multiple-computer classroom 多台机算计的教室

A computer classroom is useful when the teacher wants to present to all students simultaneously. The arrangement is helpful when the instructor is teaching students to use the same software simultaneously.

7.4

图7.4   4 台计算机的教室

7.5

图7.5   12 台计算机的教室

3The Computer Laboratory 计算机实验室

    Schools often place 15 to 20 computers together in a single room called a computer laboratory.

7.6

图7.6   计算机实验室

最後修改: 2018年 11月 1日(四) 09:47