Unit 3-知识点四:选择教学方法、媒体和材料,利用媒体和材料

4 . Select Methods, Media, and Materials

Select methods, media, and materials is the first step of using process. The selection work usually has three steps: (1) deciding on the appropriate method for the given learning tasks 按照给定的学习任务确定适当的教学方法 ; (2) choosing a media format that is suitable for carrying out the method 选择与教学方法相适应的媒体格式 ; (3) selecting, modifying, or designing specific materials within that media format 按照特定的媒体格式,选择、修改或设计特定的教学材料 。

4.1 Choosing a method 选择教学方法

    As mentioned in Chapter1, any given lesson will probably incorporate two or more methods to serve different purposes at different points in the progression of the lesson.It would be overly simplistic to believe that there is one method that is superior to all others or that serves all learning needs equally well. Any given learning will probably incorporate two or more methods to serve different purposes at different points in the progression of the lesson. 首先,不要简单地认为有一种教学方法超过了其他的方法,能够适用于所有的教学环境;其次,随着教学的进展,我们需要采用不同的教学方法服务于不同的教学内容。

Examples:

•  Game & Simulation : At the beginning of lesson, gain attention and arouse interests

•  Presentation & Demonstration & Discovery & Cooperative learning : Present the new information; Organize the activities in classroom; Ask students to learn by themselves.

•  Drill-and-practice & Program instruction: Provide practice in the new skills and knowledge.

4.2 Choosing a media format 选择媒体格式

(1) Definition

    A media format is the physical form in which a message is incorporated and displayed. Each media format has their own different strengths and limitations in terms of the types of messages that can be recorded and displayed. There are many “media selection models”, they usually take the form of flowcharts and checklists. 媒体格式就是组成信息和显示信息的物理格式。按照记录和显示信息的方式来看,每一种媒体格式都有自己的优点和局限。多年来,人们开发出了很多的媒体选择公式,也叫选择模型,通常采用流程图或者检验表的方式。

media format include for examples:

•  Flip charts : still images, text;

•  Audio: voice and music;

•  Slides: projected still images;

•  Video: moving images on a TV screen;

•  Computer multimedia: graphics, text, moving images on a monitor;

(2) How to choose the media format

① Instructional situation or setting (large group, small group or self-instruction)

② Learner variables (reader, nonreader, or auditory preference)

③ The nature of the objective (cognitive, affective, motor skill, or interpersonal)

④ Presentational capabilities of each of the media format (still visuals, motion visuals, printed words, or spoken words)

⑤ Capability of each format to give feedback to the learner.

4.3 Obtaining specific materials 获取特定教学资料

Obtaining appropriate materials will involve three alternatives:

(1) Selecting available materials. 选择可用的教学资料

(2) Modifying existing materials. 修改现有的教学资料

(3) Designing new materials . 设计新教学资料素材

    If materials are already available that will allow your students to meet your objectives, by all means use them, thus saving your work, time and money. When the materials available do not completely match your objectives or are not entirely suitable for your audience, an alternative approach is to modify them. If this is not feasible, the final alternative is to design your own materials. Even though this is more expensive and time consuming, it allows you to prepare materials to serve your students and meet your objectives.

5 Utilize Media and Materials

    The fourth steps in the ASSURE model is the use of media and materials by the students and teachers. In teacher-centered instructional system, teacher usually prepare some materials and media, and present them to the whole class, students can only watch the screed and listen to the teacher. But in students-centered instructional system, students can use the materials by themselves- as individuals or in small group. No matter the teacher-based or students-centered instruction, we also can follow the “5Ps” strategy.

(1) 1P: Preview the materials 预览资料

    We must use the materials with previewing them first! During the selection process we should determine that the materials are appropriate for our audience and objectives. We should insist on previewing the materials by ourselves! Only a thorough understanding of the contents will enable you to use the media and materials to their full potential! 在使用教学材料之前,教师要预先浏览材料,不能贸然使用任何一种教学材料(暴力、性行为等应极力避免)。

(2) 2P: Prepare the materials 准备资料

    The first step is to gather all the materials and equipment that you and students will need. And then, determine in what sequence you will use the media and materials. You can keep a list of the materials and equipment needed for each lesson and an outline of the presentation sequence of the activities. 首先,收集教师和学生需要的所有教学材料和设备;然后确定按照什么顺序使用教学材料和媒体。

    For a teacher-based lesson, you may want to practice using the materials and equipment. But for a students-based lesson, it is important that students have access to all the materials, media, and equipment that they will need. 在以教师为主的课程中,教师需要提前练习各种设备的操作;在以学生为中心的环境中,要保证有足够的教学材料、媒体和设备,供学生使用。

(3) 3P: Prepare the environment 准备环境

    Certain factors are often taken for granted for any instructional situation--comfortable seating, adequate ventilation, climate control, suitable lighting, and the like.

无论学习在那里发生——教室里、实验室里、媒体中心或者田径场——都需要具备一定的设备条件。你要提前检查这些条件是否具备,设备是否操作正常,能不能用。安排好这些条件,让所有的学生都能够看清楚,听清楚。

(4) 4P: Prepare the learners 让学生做好准备

    Research on learning tells us very clearly that what is learned from an activity depends highly on how learners are prepared for the lesson. Preparing learners is just as important when you are providing a learning experience. Prepare the learners means how to capture the attention of learner? Sometimes, we usually do it like following:

• An introduction giving a broad overview of the content of the lesson; 首先概括地介绍本章内容;

•  A rationale telling how it relates to the topic being studied; 原理性的说明本节课与之前课程之间的关系;

•  A motivating statement that creates a need to know by telling learners how they will profit from paying attention; 激励性的陈述,告诉学生他们今天的学习收获是什么,创造学习的需求;

•  Cues directing attention to specific aspects of the lesson. 提供线索,把学生的注意力引向教学活动。

(5) 5P: Provide the learning experience 用媒体学习

    If the materials are teacher based, you should present like a professional;

    If the experience is student centered, you must play the role of guide or facilitator, helping students to explore the topic on the Internet, discuss the content, and prepare materials for a portfolio, or present information to their classmates. 如果课堂是以教师为主的,那么教师应该表现得像一个专业人士“演示技巧”,如果是以学生为主的,那么教师的角色应该是引导者的角色。

Last modified: Friday, 16 March 2018, 10:25 PM