Self-directed Learning

Self-directed Learning

Self-directed Learning

by 钟海琪 20173602007 -
Number of replies: 0


Group is composed of three or more people who want to accomplish specific tasks or goals. Group has three prominent characteristics, which are size, purpose and primary or secondary nature.


  • Interdependence:  The mutual dependence of group members on one another.

  • Common Goal:  The driving force that brings people together to form is a common goal.

  • Group Personality:  When people come together in a group, they form a collective identity that becomes the group personality.

  • Commitment:  Commitment is the desire of group members to work together to complete their task to the satisfaction of the entire group.

  • Cohesiveness:  Cohesiveness, an extension of commitment, is the attraction that group members feel for each other and their willingness to stick together.

  • Group Conflict:  The truth of the matter is that whenever people come together in any communicative context there is bound to be conflict of some sort.

  • Social Facilitation:  The tendency for a person to release energy that would not be released if the individual were acting alone is called social facilitation.
  • Gender Differences:  Research shows that groups consisting of both men and women are more likely to be dominated by men talking than by women talking. Women tend toward offering positive responses to others’ comments,and in general, tend to express their subjective opinions more readily than men. When groups are in competition with one another, it appears that women are more cooperative with their opponents than are men. When groups are small in size, women prefer to work with other women, while men don’t have a gender preference.

  • Group Size:  A group is composed of a number of people who are brought together or who come together voluntarily and who share a common goal, task, or purpose.

  • Norms:  Norms are the expected and shared ways in which group members behave.

First of all, group members should attach importance to group and be aware of forming group –centered behavior. Additionally, here are some detailed actions.
  • Relevance:  Members’ comments should pertain to the topic and goals of the discussion at hand and should deviate only when tension needs to be released.

  • Relatedness:  The goal of relatedness is to make sure that contributions tie in with what has been said before and what is apt to be said next.

  • Timeliness:  To give more impact to a good idea you should, introduce it at a favorable time so that it gets the group’s full attention and consideration.

  • Sufficient Length:  Choosing the best length for a comment requires good judgment. The goal is to make sure that the comment you contribute is long enough to make your point.

  • Clarity:  Always remember that meanings are in people, not in words. Thus, you cannot assume that everyone in the group will understand your idea in the same way that you do. To avoid misunderstandings, define your terms and provide examples to ensure a common ground.

  • Informativeness:  Make sure that your statement are accurate and objective. This requires having a good understanding of the topic and doing prior research. Cite source of information when appropriate, and select sources that are not biased.

  • Openness to evaluation:  Criticism should not be ignored or avoided. At the same time, members must remember that evaluation can be constructive only when they focus on the contribution and not on the person.

  • Provocativeness:  Asking questions, challenging ideas, and disagreeing can be valuable contributions as long as their goal is to make the final group product the best one possible.